Topic: Nursing care of child rearing family

Subject: Community Health Nursing-II

For  the Student’s of B.Sc in Nursing And Diploma. 


Most parents realize that their infants are born with unique characteristics & few parents of difficult infants need to be told of the challenge of caring for them .However, very few parents are aware of the significant of the temperamental characteristics & to constructive approaches to dealing with them.

Appropriate counseling based on awareness of the Childs temperament can greatly enhance the quality of interaction between parents & infant.

Who is a child?

According to united nation (UN) convention on the rights of children – all human offspring’s aged 0 to 18 years’ are children.

According to Nation children policy – Bangladesh all human offspring’s aged 0 to 14 years are children .

The life of a child can be divided in to several stages. They include –

  • Intrauterine-embryo & fetus
  • Neonate ( birth to 28 days )
  • Early infancy (the first six months )
  • Late infancy ( 6 to 12 months )
  • Toddlers ( 1 to 3 years )
  • Preschool child ( 3 to 6 years of age )
  • Late- childhood ( 6 to 9 years )
  • Adolescence ( 10 to 18 years )

Children have different needs depending on where they are within these stages .Care of the child according to their life stages given below:

Neonate (birth to 28 days) –

It starts after the child is delivered.

  • Care of the child should be done after delivery by cutting the umbilical cord with aseptic technique & take care of it until the umbilical cord dries up.
  • Helping mother to feed the baby colostrums within 1 hour of birth.
  • If there is any disease condition or medication needed provide medication & record properly.
  • Vital signs should be checked & report any abnormality or report any congenital deformity.
  • Cover up the child well with soft clothes & provide warm comfortable environment.
  • Every day clean up the eye, nose, ear & oral hygiene.
  • Maintain personal hygiene by bathy & maintain perineum hygiene.
  • Keep the perineum area dry & clean, Check the diaper is wet or not. Clean the perineum area every time after toilet & give powder & lotion if necessary to avoid friction.
  • Wash the child clothing in anti-septic water & dry them in sunlight.
  • Provide massage with no oil or body lotion to improve muscle tone & circulation & do not keep the body for long betimes under sun.
  • Instruct the mother the proper way of breast feeding & nothing but breast milk until 6 months & also tell mother to be careful during breast feeding that milk does not enter into baby’s ear, nose or eye.
  • Provide breast milk repeatedly after certain period & maintain proper nutrition.
  • After feeding keep the child in upright position for ½ to 1 hour.
  • Provide immunization to the baby & instruct the parents to get baby’s birth certificate.
  • Use mosquito net to avoid insect bite.

    Infant care: (First 6 months):

  • Keep the child on eye that the child do not pick sharp , harmful objects & swallow it .
  • Provide railing or side pillow to child to prevent falling down .
  • Do not provide sharp toys to play.
  • Teach the child about toilet training.
  • Provide boiled normal water to drink & mix vegetables with khichuri with sufficient oil, & advice mother to continue breast milk.
  • Maintain proper nutrition by giving child seasonal fruits & provide every day liver or egg or fish to the child iodinated salt that will help the child grow up , build muscles & increase the intelligence of child .
  • Monitor growth & weight chart to follow the child is growing properly or not.
  • Advice the family to complete the child immunization.
  • Take care of eye, ear, and noise & maintain oral hygiene every day.
  • Maintain personal hygiene & perineum care.
  • Massage the child gently for better muscle tone & circulation.
  • Keep the child in comfortable environment & provide soft loosen clothing.
  • Wash the child’s cloths in antiseptic solution & dry in sunlight.
  • Provide love & intimacy to child & play talk, sing for child.
  • Do not let the child play in dart on floor.
  • Keep the floor clean with Lysol.
  • If necessary seek advice of doctor to check the child’s health & growth.

Toddler care (1 to 3 years) –

  • Help the child walk or run well by guiding them, keep breakable things away from them.
  • Help the child to learn good language pattern by talking before child in good positive way.
  • Never bit the child physically that may affect child’s mental health.
  • Teach the child’s toilet training.
  • Teach & help the child learning self activities life self- feeding, self –clothing, self toileting.
  • Let the child play run around , provide games like bricks , picture puzzle or any game the child is interested .
  • Provide warmth, love & positive attitude toward child for better mental health.

Pre -school child & school child (3-6 years):

  • Let the child have friends & play with them.
  • Help the child learning self-activities .eg. Lie shoe lasses, wear cloths.
  • Help the child avoid bad habits. .eg. Thumb sacking or bottle feeding.
  • Help the child learn tooth brushing & void bladder before sleep.
  • Provide nutritious food & snacks to the child & add more fruits, vegetables & protein to the diet.
  • Monitor child growth & report any abnormalities.
  • Help the family to learn guiding child attitude & assist learning education & religion.
  • Care for child accidents. eg. Simple cut, laceration.

Late childhood (6 to 9 years) –

  • Help the child learning certain attitude toward different age people.
  • Help the child to learn self household activities .eg. Cleaning own room, clothes, table, books etc.
  • Provide appropriate diet because in this age child grows rapidly especially girls.
  • Teach & guide the child to give more attention to studies.
  • Allow recreational & religious activities.

                  Adolescence (10 to 18 years)-

  As the child grows at a certain time they reach to the puberty stage .That time a child should be thought about –

  • Their physical changes .Every child should have clean idea about it.
  • They should be known about how to take care of their personal hygiene.
  • They should be well known about sex education.
  • Girls should be told about reproductive health & menstruation.
  • Proper nutritional status should be maintained this time especially girls with iron containing foods to prevent anemia.
  • Maintain fluid & electrolyte balance.
  • Boys also should be told about hoe to maintain their reproductive health.
  • Social & religious values should be maintained & follow to lead a better reproductive life.
  • Advice should be given to girls not to get married before 18 years if 20 years get married better.

Lecture by, 

Tasmin Tamanna.