Topic: Nursing care of child rearing family
Subject: Community Health Nursing-II
For the Student’s of B.Sc in Nursing And Diploma.
Most parents realize that their infants are born with unique characteristics & few parents of difficult infants need to be told of the challenge of caring for them .However, very few parents are aware of the significant of the temperamental characteristics & to constructive approaches to dealing with them.
Appropriate counseling based on awareness of the Childs temperament can greatly enhance the quality of interaction between parents & infant.
Who is a child?
According to united nation (UN) convention on the rights of children – all human offspring’s aged 0 to 18 years’ are children.
According to Nation children policy – Bangladesh all human offspring’s aged 0 to 14 years are children .
The life of a child can be divided in to several stages. They include –
- Intrauterine-embryo & fetus
- Neonate ( birth to 28 days )
- Early infancy (the first six months )
- Late infancy ( 6 to 12 months )
- Toddlers ( 1 to 3 years )
- Preschool child ( 3 to 6 years of age )
- Late- childhood ( 6 to 9 years )
- Adolescence ( 10 to 18 years )
Children have different needs depending on where they are within these stages .Care of the child according to their life stages given below:
Neonate (birth to 28 days) –
It starts after the child is delivered.
- Care of the child should be done after delivery by cutting the umbilical cord with aseptic technique & take care of it until the umbilical cord dries up.
- Helping mother to feed the baby colostrums within 1 hour of birth.
- If there is any disease condition or medication needed provide medication & record properly.
- Vital signs should be checked & report any abnormality or report any congenital deformity.
- Cover up the child well with soft clothes & provide warm comfortable environment.
- Every day clean up the eye, nose, ear & oral hygiene.
- Maintain personal hygiene by bathy & maintain perineum hygiene.
- Keep the perineum area dry & clean, Check the diaper is wet or not. Clean the perineum area every time after toilet & give powder & lotion if necessary to avoid friction.
- Wash the child clothing in anti-septic water & dry them in sunlight.
- Provide massage with no oil or body lotion to improve muscle tone & circulation & do not keep the body for long betimes under sun.
- Instruct the mother the proper way of breast feeding & nothing but breast milk until 6 months & also tell mother to be careful during breast feeding that milk does not enter into baby’s ear, nose or eye.
- Provide breast milk repeatedly after certain period & maintain proper nutrition.
- After feeding keep the child in upright position for ½ to 1 hour.
- Provide immunization to the baby & instruct the parents to get baby’s birth certificate.
- Use mosquito net to avoid insect bite.
Infant care: (First 6 months):
- Keep the child on eye that the child do not pick sharp , harmful objects & swallow it .
- Provide railing or side pillow to child to prevent falling down .
- Do not provide sharp toys to play.
- Teach the child about toilet training.
- Provide boiled normal water to drink & mix vegetables with khichuri with sufficient oil, & advice mother to continue breast milk.
- Maintain proper nutrition by giving child seasonal fruits & provide every day liver or egg or fish to the child iodinated salt that will help the child grow up , build muscles & increase the intelligence of child .
- Monitor growth & weight chart to follow the child is growing properly or not.
- Advice the family to complete the child immunization.
- Take care of eye, ear, and noise & maintain oral hygiene every day.
- Maintain personal hygiene & perineum care.
- Massage the child gently for better muscle tone & circulation.
- Keep the child in comfortable environment & provide soft loosen clothing.
- Wash the child’s cloths in antiseptic solution & dry in sunlight.
- Provide love & intimacy to child & play talk, sing for child.
- Do not let the child play in dart on floor.
- Keep the floor clean with Lysol.
- If necessary seek advice of doctor to check the child’s health & growth.
Toddler care (1 to 3 years) –
- Help the child walk or run well by guiding them, keep breakable things away from them.
- Help the child to learn good language pattern by talking before child in good positive way.
- Never bit the child physically that may affect child’s mental health.
- Teach the child’s toilet training.
- Teach & help the child learning self activities life self- feeding, self –clothing, self toileting.
- Let the child play run around , provide games like bricks , picture puzzle or any game the child is interested .
- Provide warmth, love & positive attitude toward child for better mental health.
Pre -school child & school child (3-6 years):
- Let the child have friends & play with them.
- Help the child learning self-activities .eg. Lie shoe lasses, wear cloths.
- Help the child avoid bad habits. .eg. Thumb sacking or bottle feeding.
- Help the child learn tooth brushing & void bladder before sleep.
- Provide nutritious food & snacks to the child & add more fruits, vegetables & protein to the diet.
- Monitor child growth & report any abnormalities.
- Help the family to learn guiding child attitude & assist learning education & religion.
- Care for child accidents. eg. Simple cut, laceration.
Late childhood (6 to 9 years) –
- Help the child learning certain attitude toward different age people.
- Help the child to learn self household activities .eg. Cleaning own room, clothes, table, books etc.
- Provide appropriate diet because in this age child grows rapidly especially girls.
- Teach & guide the child to give more attention to studies.
- Allow recreational & religious activities.
Adolescence (10 to 18 years)-
As the child grows at a certain time they reach to the puberty stage .That time a child should be thought about –
- Their physical changes .Every child should have clean idea about it.
- They should be known about how to take care of their personal hygiene.
- They should be well known about sex education.
- Girls should be told about reproductive health & menstruation.
- Proper nutritional status should be maintained this time especially girls with iron containing foods to prevent anemia.
- Maintain fluid & electrolyte balance.
- Boys also should be told about hoe to maintain their reproductive health.
- Social & religious values should be maintained & follow to lead a better reproductive life.
- Advice should be given to girls not to get married before 18 years if 20 years get married better.