Subject: Nursing Education
4th year B.Sc in Nursing
Quest for knowledge is an innate quality of human beings which makes them distinct from all other creations by God. This everlasting affinity towards knowledge fuelled all interventions ranging from fire in pre-historic period to the cloning in the modern times. Ancient man recognizes the need of organizing the knowledge for utilizing it to the maximum extent possible. This attempt has lead to the development of education system. As time passed , there occur a tremendous increase in the human needs, many of the aroused from the man’s desire to tame the nature for a better living.
According to thinkers in ancient India, Vidya or knowledge or learning or education was considered the “third eye” of man, which gives him an insight into all affairs and teaches him how to act, it leads us to our salvation.
Different Terminologies used in nursing education:
- Principles: Principles are the fundamental rules or facts which are established by research.
- Methods: Methods are orderly systematic procedure established to carry out any plan.
- Teaching: Teaching is the interaction between the teacher and students under the teacher’s responsibility in order to bring about expected changes in the student’s behavior.
- Education: It is a process , the chief goal of which is to bring about change behavior in the course of a given period.
- Goal: It is the intended end result or achievement from a programme or activity towards which all effects are directed.
- Mission: Mission is a statement that identifies in broad terms the purposes for which the organization exists.
- Vision: It means the act of seeing something with insight power.
- Educational objectives: it is the statement of what the students will be able to do at the end of learning period what they could not do before.
- Concept: A concept is an idea or abstract principle that relates to a particular subject or to a particular view of that subject.
- Philosophy: philosophy includes the statement of the organizational beliefs, values that determine the way, the purposes of nursing services /education is achieved.
- Standard: standard are the agreed level of performance to ensure a specific outcome to be achieved or it is the measuring unit of performance that agreed by all.
Concept of Education:
The word education is derived from the Latin word ‘educere’ which means to ‘lead out’. This derivation denotes “growth from the within”. Thus the root meaning of education can be given as making manifest the inherent potentials in a child. The educere also means “bring up” , “to train” or “to mould”.
The idea of education is not merely impart knowledge to the pupil in some subjects but to develop in him those habits and attitudes with which he may successfully face the future.
- “Education is the all –round drawing out of the best in child and man—body, mind and spirit”. ——————Mahatma Gandhi.
- Education is the natural, harmonious and progressive development of man’s innate powers. ———-
- Creation of a sound mind in a sound body. ——–
- Education is the development of all those capabilities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his responsibilities————–John Dewey.
**Characteristics of Education:
- Education is a purposeful activity.
- Education is a child-centered process.
- Education is a planned activity based on objectives.
- Education is a sociological process.
- Education process is influenced by the society, social changes, and technological advancement.
- Education is a psychological process.
- Education is not literacy.
- Education is a life-long process.
- Education is more than giving information.
- Education is more than instruction and teaching.
- Education is developing knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Aims of education:
Aim is a pre-determined goal, which inspire the individual to attain it through appropriate activities. As education is a planned and purposeful activity, the aims are necessary in giving direction to the education.
**Factors determining educational aims:
- Philosophy of life: Education is the best means for propagation of philosophy. Philosophy and education are the two sides of a coin.
- Elements of human nature e.g. unfolding of the divine in man.
- Religious factors, e.g. Buddha preached ahimsa and truth are the two weapons which have to be prevailed in educational system.
- Political ideologies.
- Socio-economic factors and problems of the country.
- Cultural factors-education has to preserve and transmit the cultural heritage and traditions from one generation to another.
- Exploration of knowledge.
Aims of education:
- Knowledge: it is essential for intellectual growth, good interpersonal relationship, and healthy adjustment in life, modification of behavior, self-awareness and for social growth. Knowledge is power; attainment of knowledge is an important aim of education.
- Complete living: education acquints the person with activities of complete living, e.g. performance of social, political responsibilities and beneficial utilization of leisure time.
- Harmonious personality development: harmonious cultivation of physical, intellectual, emotional, mental, moral character, spiritual aspects of human development thus a well-balanced personality development will take place with education.
- Self-realization: education helps a person based on his potentialities what he is going to become.
- Education for increased productivity: education should help to satisfy this need through the production of manpower i. e people who are equipped with advanced technology, scientific knowledge and efficient work experience.
- Vocational efficiency: education should prepare the child to earn his livelihood and make him-self sufficient and efficient economically and socially.
- Cultural development: every individual has to become cultured, if attained, it gives aesthetic sense, concern, and respect for others and their culture.
- Citizenship: the child has to educate to become a good citizen of his country. He should be beneficial to the society.
- Development of leadership: education should train the youth to assume leadership qualities in various fields like social, industrial and cultural fields.
- Social and national integration: education should inculcate the feeling of oneness and belongingness.
- Education for modernization: education should produce the people who are able to think and judge independently and effectively, intellectually and competent persons must be prepared.
- Art of living: education should enable a person to acquire the necessary interpersonal skills and adjustment abilities for successful and happy living together in society.
Purpose of education: The main purpose of education is to permanently change of behavior of the learners.
- Develop the individual intellectually.
- Development of desirable behavior.
- Proper socialization of people.
- Help the people to be a responsible citizen.
- Education ensures the contribution of people in civilization.
- It develops knowledge, skill, attitudes and behavior of the learners.
- It gives the guidance to the people up to death.
Process of education:
Education has two processes:
- In individual process: it is identical with individual growth and the development of latent powers in the child.
- In social point of view: it is identical with socialization adjustment to environment and imbibing of culture. (imbibe= drink in, absorb, receive into the mind)
**Functions of Education: Functions of education may be divided into following two categories:
- Functions of education in human life.
- Functions of education in national life.
- Functions of education in human life:
- Progressive development of innate powers: The main function of education is to develop innate power such as curiosity, love, self-prestige, imagination, reasoning etc. of the child. Pestolozzi (A Swiss educational reformer) defined education as natural, harmonious, and progressive development of man’s innate powers.
- Vocational efficiency: This helps learners to adopt some suitable profession after finish in their education. Also they will be able to solve the problem of their livelihood.
- Satisfactions of needs: One of the important functions of education is to enable the learner to satisfy his needs. These needs may be biological, social, psychological, economic, ethical and spiritual.
- Personality development: Education should aim at the complete development of personality of the child. Woods Worth stated, “Personality is the total quality of an individual’s behavior.”
- To prepare the child for adult life: Education prepares the learners for the responsibilities and privileges of adult life.
- Character formation and morality: Education enables the learner to know the supreme values of life, that is , truth , goodness, beauty and thereby endeavor to maintain good conduct and moral.
- Guidance: It is the function of education as every man needs some guidance to get acquainted in different spheres of life and earn in livelihood.
- Reorganization and reconstruction of experience: This function of education will facilitate the learner to take help of the past and prepares for the future.
Functions of education in national life:
- National development: National development of any country is all depend on education because due to illiteracy men do not understand their rights, much less their duties. Under such circumstances, priority to plan education should be given and the main function of these plans should be to provide education to all man upto a certain standard which results in development of the nation.
- National integration: The question of integration covers in a sense almost everything. Communalism, regionalism, linguistic antagonisms are the stumbling block for the achievement national integration and education is the only means to achieve it.
- To supply the skill workers: With the help of skilled workers, commerce and industry will move smoothly and national wealth would take an upward stroke for which education is required.
- To give training for leadership: Education should give the training for leadership to the learners so that they may provide proper leadership in the economic, social, political and cultural fields.
- To improve social efficiency: Education should prepare such citizens who will not be a burden for the society and nation. Education can prepare such efficient citizens only when children are trained in such trades and industries as are useful for the economic development of the society and nation.
- Social reformation and Progress: Important function of education is to study the rules and principles of social changes and to direct and provide opportunity to the society to move in a right way.
- To prepare good citizens: Education can creates good citizens and good citizens are the asset of any country.
- Provocation of social feelings: It should be the function of education to improve social qualities such as mercy, welfare of others, leadership, love, sympathy, discipline etc.
Aims of Education in Ancient India: The aim of education in ancient India was the ultimate outcome of the Indian theory of knowledge and the corresponding scheme of life and values. People in ancient India were greatly impressed and affected by the fact of death as the central fact of life. Their one aim of life was to solve the problem of death by achieving knowledge of the whole truth of which life and death are arts and phases. The aim was not simply abstract and theoretical. There were practical and concrete aims too. The first was the acquisition of knowledge. This was evident in the Vedic period. Inculcation of social and civic duties in the minds of the students was also regarded as an important aim of education in those days. Education for occupation was another important aim. Character training and moral education was regarded as very important aim of ancient Indian education.
Aims of Education in Medieval India: During medieval age religion was the main guiding force in life and society. Medieval civilization centered round religion. The Muslim rulers of India generally took a keen interest in education, and many of them founded schools, colleges and libraries in various places in their kingdoms. The mosque was a center of instruction and of literary activity. Muslim education included those eternal teachings and values of the Quran and Haditha, which would promote moral and spiritual knowledge. Islamic education aimed at both physical and mental development of the students. Thus, it aimed at total development of personality of individual.
Aims of Education in British India:
The British uprooted the indigenous system of education in India with definite intentions. The educational system established by the British was colonial in character. It was designed to prepare Indians only for taking certain subordinate positions in Government offices. It was not intended to develop among the people capacities to take leadership and initiative in different walks of life. The main educational objective can better be understood from the following declaration in the educational policy or Lord Bentinck (1835): “We want a class of persons Indian in blood and colour but English in tastes in opinion, in morals and intellect.” The Wood’s Despatch declared almost the same policy. The aim of British education was to inculcate European knowledge in the minds of the Indians.
PROCESS OF EDUCATION
Education by Accretion or Storage:
“According to this view, education is the process of gradually filling up the empty mind of the child with grains of knowledge. The teacher’s mind and the books are the store-houses of mental granary of the child. This is called the gold-sack theory. The books and the teacher are the sources of the springs of knowledge. From these sources the stream of knowledge is to be piped into the empty vassal of the child’s mind. This is humorously called the pipeline theory. Obviously education and knowledge is regarded as the ultimate educational aim.
The supporters of the theory of education by accretion hold that knowledge is essential means of prompting human welfare. With the invention of the conventional symbols of language, it was easy to record, pressure and to transmit human experiences systematically.
The theory is really narrow and unsound. It neglects the essential elements in the theory of knowledge .It regards knowledge as information of facts and statements to be condensed into compact and logical forms and memorized by the pupils.
This theory is quite un-psychological as it neglects the child who is to be educated, his innate equipments for bearing, his inherited potentialities, propensities, attitudes and abilities, the psychological processes and products of learning.
Education as formation of mind: Education as formation tries to form the mind by a proper presentation of materials. It is formation of mind by setting up certain association or connection of content by means of a subject matter.
Education as preparation: Education as preparation is a process of preparation or getting ready for the responsibilities and privileges of adult life- preparation for “complete living”, this theory is the outcome of modern scientific tendency in education and has for its exponents men like Herbert Spencer, T. H. Huxley and others.
Education as mental discipline: The theory of mental discipline is a traditional concept of education. It was in vogue in the Western countries for many centuries. It is still highly popular even today in our country. According to this theory, the process of learning is more important than the thing learned. This theory is based upon the traditional “Faculty Theory” of psychology according to which the mind is divided into a good number of separate faculties such as memory, attention, reasoning, imagination, perception, thinking judgment etc. Johan Locke was the classic representative of this theory. The outer world presents the material or content of knowledge, through passively received sensations. After the simple stuff of experience is furnished by the senses, one’s ideas, judgments, etc. are formed through the perfection of intellect.
Education as growth and development: It is a modern concept of education. Change is the law of nature. Man undergoes changes and transformations from cradle to grave. These changes may be of different types such as physical, mental, moral and emotional. Two factors, training and environment condition every change. The original nature of man can be changed either by training on by his reaction to the environment. Whenever there is change there is growth. Through change, a living organism can take entirely a new shape and this again gives him powers to grow. Thus, Growing is education and getting education is growing.
Education as direction: Educate a child means directing the child in the proper direction. The young learners have innate powers, attitudes, interests.. It is the essential function of education to direct those inborn instincts and powers properly in socially acceptable and desirable channels. The native impulses of the child may not conform to the socially accepted norms and behavior patterns. So the child has to be directed, controlled or guided. It is the duty of the teacher to see that the active tendencies of children are not dispersed aimlessly. These are to be directed at various phases of life for their proper satisfaction.
Education as adjustment and self-activity
Adjustment is essential to an individual for self-development. Education gives an individual the power of adjustment in an efficient manner. Through education, the child learns to adjust with the environment. That is why it is said education is adjustment and adjustment is education. In the process of continuous growth man has to adjust in multifarious and diverse life situations and environment. This is called adjustment and it requires self-activity. So education is nothing but adjustment through self-activity.
Education as social change and progress
A society is a well-organized human community. A conglomeration of people may not create a society. There must be active co-operation and intimate interaction among the members of the community. A society is not constant or static. It is rather dynamic and subject to change. A society is composed of individuals and when the ideas of individuals change the society is bound to change. According to Maciver social change is a process, which influences and change human life in different directions. Change is the law of human life and society. The function of education is to maintain this progressive trend.
Education as Process Socialization
Education is a process both in the narrower as well as in the wider sense. Ancient people used to collect facts and information about nature for survival. This is nothing but education. In the wider sense, education is acquisition of experience throughout life. Experience brings changes in human life and behaviour. It is the primary function of formal education to accelerate and facilitate social progress.
Chowdhury Ahshanul Haider,