Stomach Anatomy

1st Year B.Sc in Nursing

Subject: Anatomy

Stomach Anatomy



Learning outcome:

  • Define stomach/what is stomach?
  • Write the anatomy of stomach
  • Draw & level different parts of stomach
  • Describe stomach with diagram
  • Mention the parts of stomach


  • The stomach is a muscular organ located on the left side of the upper abdomen. The stomach receives food from the esophagus. As food reaches the end of the esophagus, it enters the stomach through a muscular valve called the lower esophageal sphincter.
  • The stomach secretes acid and enzymes that digest food. Ridges of muscle tissue called rugae line the stomach. The stomach muscles contract periodically, churning food to enhance digestion. The pyloric sphincter is a muscular valve that opens to allow food to pass from the stomach to the small intestine.
  • The stomach is the widest and most distensible part of the digestive tract.
  • The stomach is a J-shaped dilated portion of the digestive or alimentary tract.
  • It is a muscular bag, connected above to the oesophagus and below to the duodenum.

Anatomy of stomach:

Location: The stomach is placed in the following regions of abdomen-

  • Epigastric
  • Umbilical
  • Left hypochondriae

Shape: The stomach is somewhat J-shaped.

Size & capacity:

Length: 25 cm.

Capacity: at birth-30ml; at puberty-1 L; in adults-1.5-2L.

External features: The stomach has:

  • Two orifices or openings at two end: cardiac and pyloric.
  • Two curvatures: greater and lesser.
  • Two surfaces: anterior and posterior.

Two orifices:

  • Cardiac orifices
  • Pyloric orifices

Two curvatures:

  • Greater curvature &
  • Lesser curvature

Parts of Stomach
The stomach is divided into the following parts –

Cardia: it is the part around the cardiac orifice.

Fundus: This is dome-shaped and projects upward and to the left of the cardiac orifice. It is usually full of gas.

Body: This extends from the level of the cardiac orifice to the level of the incisura angularis, a constant notch in the lower part of the lesser curvature.

Pylorus: This is the most tubular part of the stomach. The thick muscular wall is called the pyloric sphincter, and the cavity of the pylorus is the pyloric canal.

  • Pyloric antrum: This extends from the incisura angularis to the pylorus.
  • Pyloric canal-:  is the distal narrow and tubular part, about 2.5cm long. It terminates at the pylorus.

Thank you All

Lecture by:

Md. Ashraful Islam

B.Sc in nursing