Question-May, 2009

  1. Write down the effects of balancing factors of stressful events.


Effect of balancing factors in a stressful event

Human organism

Stressful event                 State of equilibrium                           Stressful event


                                              State of disequilibrium


A                                                                      B

              Balancing factor present                       One or more balancing factor absent



          Adequate situational support                       No adequate situational support



       Adequate coping mechanism result in           No coping mechanism result in



             Resolution of the problem                                    Problem unresolved           


                    Equilibrium required                                  Disequilibrium continuous


                         No crisis                                                                  Crisis


  1. Write the name of neurotransmitters.


Neurotransmitter (Definition)

These are highly active chemical agents releases at the nerve ending and transmit impulses from nerve to nerve or from nerve to effector tissue.

Name of neurotransmitters

  1. Excitatory
  1. Acetylcholine
  2. Adrenaline
  3. Noradrenaline
  4. Glutamate
  5. Dopamine


  1. Inhibitory
  1. Dopamine
  2. Glycine
  3. Alanine
  4. Taurine
  5. GABA ( Gama amino butyric acid)
  6. Serotonin
  1. Mixed
  1. 5- HT ( Hydroxytrytamine)
  2. Histamine
  3. Prostaglandine
  4. Nor-epinephirine



Neurotransmitters Functions
Excitatory Inhibitory
Acetylcholine Regulates muscle movements & cognitive functioning, movement memory etc.
Glutamate Helps in memory process
GABA(Gamma Amino Butyric Acid) Moderates eating, aggression & sleeping
Dopamine Dopamine Regulates movements & coordination actions, emotions and voluntary decision making ability, thought, feeling, learning etc.
Serotonin Regulates sleep , eating, mood, anxiety and pain.
Endorphins Regulates pain and pleasurable feelings
Glycine, Taurine, Agmatine Epinephrine, PEA, Norepinephrin, Histamine, Glycine, Aspartic acid


  1. Discuss the social and emotional development of adulthood.


Social development

Social development refers the development of social skills and emotional maturity that are needed to create relationships and relate to others. Often developing empathy and understanding the needs of others is also included in the area of social development. Parental interactions are the building blocks for healthy social development in children. Social interactions with peers an important part of his/her life, as he/she becomes more involved with other children and adults around him/her.

Emotional development

Emotional development refers the overall perception of self; including traits, feelings, abilities, motives, and social roles.  Another aspect of emotional development is self-efficacy; Self-efficacy creates feelings of self-confidence, competence, and positive emotions. Emotional development is the process of learning how to understand and control emotions.

Finally it can be said that, Emotional development includes the development of emotional stability, balance and awareness of one’s own emotions. Social development includes the development of social behavior, behaving according to rules of society, interaction with family, peers, colleagues etc.


  1. Describe the meaning of attitude. Describe the process involved in attitude change.


Meaning of attitude

As the individual develops his cognition, feelings and action tendencies with respect to the various objects in his world become organized into enduring system called attitude.

Allport (1935) has defined attitude as a mental and neural state of readiness organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual’s response.


An attitude can be defined, as an enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of the individual’s world.

(Krech and Crutchfield-1948)

Process involved in attitude change

Some process involved in attitude change. This are-

  1. Attitude change through social learning. Children get their attitudes from parents, teachers, friends etc.
  2. Obtaining new information coming from others and through mass media. This information produces changes in the cognitive component, affective and behavioral component also change.
  3. Attitude change through direct experience and factual knowledge.
  4. Attitude can be changed by through various learning process like classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning, modeling etc.
  5. The external situation around persons also has some effect on the attitude change.
  6. Group support is also necessary for attitude change.
  7. Changes in attitude can be brought about by legislation.


  1. Differentiate between experimental and developmental psychology.


Trait Experimental psychology Developmental psychology
Definition The branch of psychology that investigate the relationship between two (or more) variables by deliberately producing a change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects of those changes on other aspects of the situation. The branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change occurring throughout life.
Describe Behavior and attitude of the animal. Growth and development of human
Understand through Felling and observing Seeing
Changeable Rapid according to environment Slow /impossible(naturally)
Nature Experiment base theory Mechanism of the body
Theories Pavlov’s classical conditioning, Thorndike’s trial & error. Erik Erikson’s theory of psycho-social development.



  1. Explain the factors affecting memory.


Definition of memory: Memory is the process by which people encode, store and retrieve the information.

Factors affecting memory:

Effective learning, constant repetition, interest, intelligence, Health of the body, emotional calm, lack of destructions at the time of learning and recalling, attention and interest of the learner, vividness of the experience to be recalled, association of experience to be recalled, intelligence helps in recalling the right thing at the right time.


Question- April, 2010

  1. Define intelligence. Explain the assessment and measurement of IQ test.


“Intelligence is the capacity to understand the world, think rationally and use resources effectively when we faced with challenges”- Wechster.

Intelligence may be defined as “the power of good responses from the point of view of truth or fact”- Thorndike.

Intelligence can be defined as a sort of mental energy in the form of mental or cognitive abilities available with an individual which enables him to handle his environment in terms of adaptation to face novel situations as effectively as possible– Mangal 1993.

Assessment and measurement of intelligent


Assessment of intelligent


Intelligent can be assessed through psychological test. Alfred Binet (1875-1911) was the first psychologist to device an intelligent test. Intelligent test can be classified into two broad categories-

  1. Individual test: in which only one individual is tested at a time.
  2. Group test: in which a group of individuals are tested at the same time.


Further intelligence tests may also be classified on the basis of their form as verbal or language tests and no-verbal or non-language test.

  1. Verbal or language tests- These tests make use of languages. It includes-
  1. Vocabulary tests: In these the subject is required to give the meanings of words or phrases.
  2. Memory tests: These are designed to test the subject’s immediate and long term memory like telephone number, vehicle number, teachers name etc.
  3. Comprehension tests: By means of these, the subject is tested for the ability to grasp, understand and react to a given situation.
  4. Information tests: The subject is tested on his knowledge about the things around him.
  5. Reasoning tests: In these tests the subject is asked to provide answers which demonstrate his ability to reason- logically, analytically, systematically. For example- 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 22, 29, ?, ?, ?.
  6. Association tests: Through these test items is tested for his ability to point out the similarities and dissimilarities between two or more concepts or objects.
  1. Non verbal or non-language tests-These tests involve such activities in which the use of language is not necessary.
  2. Individual verbal intelligence tests: Tests involving the use of language which are administered to one individual at a time e.g. The Stanford Binet scale, individual performance tests, Arthur point scale etc.
  3. Group verbal intelligence tests– The tests which necessitate the use of language and are applied to a group of individuals at a time. For example- Army alpha test (During 1st world war), Army general classification test (World War II).

Measurement of intelligent

William Stern, the German Psychologist introduced the concept of IQ. IQ is obtained when the mental age (MA) is divided by the chronological age (CA) which is the actual age of the persons in years and multiplied by 100.


IQ=                                     X 100



Imagine a 15 years old child score a mental age of 10. His IQ will be


IQ=                                    X 100




=                                              X 100      = 150




  1. What is behavior? Mention the classification of behavior.



The behavior is defined as collective voluntary movement of the body in response to motives, attitudes and decisions of an individual.

In other words “Any observable, recordable and measureable act, movement or response of an individual” is called behavior.


According to Oxford dictionary, Behavior means “the way in which a person acts, conduct, manners, reaction under set of imposed conditions”


The activities which can be observed recorded and measured defined as behavior. It includes what people say or write. It also includes their reports of their fears or their desires. In addition, it includes physiological or bodily changes such as elevation of blood pressure.

Types of Behavior


  1. Conditional/Responsive behavior: It results from the causes or stimuli. It may be either normal or abnormal.
  1. The innate behavior
  2. Organic reflexes such as action of heart, lungs.
  3. Reflexes like coughing, swallowing and knee jerk etc.
  • Some complex reflexes such as running away from danger and shrinking etc.
  1. Group behavior
  2. Crowd behavior
  3. Health behavior
  4. Compliance behavior
  5. Avoidance behavior
  6. Illness behavior
  7. Risk behavior
  8. Treatment behavior


  1. Voluntary behavior: Controlled consciously by the living beings.
  2. Involuntary behavior: Not under control of the living beings.
  3. Unconscious behavior: The behavior in which the individual is not aware of his/her own activities.  It depends on the individual’s perceptions, attitudes and prejudices.
  4. Covert or closed behavior: It is a strong attitude which is most likely to give rise to a particular action.
  5. Overt or open behavior: It is the action outwardly done by an individual. It is usually visible.
  6. Normal behavior: The behavior which is intact the expectation of the general people of the community. It satisfies oneself and others.
  7. Abnormal behavior: It usually refers to maladaptive behavior. It usually dissatisfies oneself and others. It is also called maladaptive behavior.


  1. Explain various types of mental illness/ mental disorder.


Types of mental illness: According to ICD 10-

  1. Organic mental disorder
  • Dementia
  • Delirium
  1. Mental and behavioral disorder
  • Alcohol and drug abuse
  1. Mood affective disorder
  • Manic episode
  • Depressive episode
  • Bipolar mood disorder
  1. Neurotic and somatoform disorder
  • Phobic disorder
  • Anxiety disorder
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder
  1. Behavioral disorder
  • Eating disorder
  • Sexual dysfunction
  1. Personality disorder
  • Specific personality disorder
  • Mixed personality disorder
  • Habit and impulsive disorder
  1. Mental retardation
  • Mild, moderate, severe and profound mental retardation
  1. Disorder of psychological disorder
  • Developmental disorder
  1. Emotional disorder
  • Hyperkinetic disorder
  • Conduct disorder
  1. Unspecified mental disorder
  • Clinical disorder- schizophrenia, mood disorder


  1. Explain briefly the types of learning.


Types of learning

  1. Cognitive learning ( Knowledge)
  2. Affective learning ( Attitude)
  3. Psychomotor learning ( Skill)

The main types of learning examined by the researcher’s are-

  1. Classical Conditioning 2. Operant/instrumental conditioning
  2. Observational learning 4. Cognitive learning
  3. Reinforcement or incentive conditioning a.  Expectations
  4. Attention                                                    b. Cognitive maps
  5. Retention                                                        c.  Insight learning
  6. Motor reproduction
  7. Biological & cultural learning
  8. Biological factor
  9. Cultural factor
  10. Trial and error learning 7. Social learning theory


  1. Mention the causes of individual differences. Differentiate between Nature and Nurture.


Causes of individual differences:

A child comes to this world with certain traits which determine his individual’s capabilities and thus differs from others on account on heredity. Individual differences caused by heredity and environmental factors.

  1. Heredity
  2. The heredity decides the path of the progress and development of an individual.
  3. Heredity provides the limits of one’s growth and development in various dimensions and aspects of one’s personality and provides differences.
  4. Environment
  5. The environment is everything that affects the individual except gene.
  6. The first environment for a child is the mother’s womb. The physiological and psychological states of the mother during pregnancy, her habits, and interests, all influence the development of the fetus.
  7. The social organization and persons have difference impact on the physical, social, emotional, intellectual, moral, and aesthetic development of the individual.
  8. Race and national
  9. Age
  10. Sex
  11. Health
  12. Intelligence
  13. Personality
  14. Social abilities
  15. Educational level and economic status.


Difference between nature and nurture

Sl. No. Nature Nurture
1. Heredity means nature Environment means nurture
2. Nature dependents on the inherited skills. Nurture dependents on the improve skills.
3. Heredity refers to biological process, human behavior and development ranking from physical characteristics such as height, weight, colour, skin, eye etc. Environment plays role to form human behavior.
4. Heredity factors are more prominent. Environment factors are prominent.
5. Nature supplies potential talent. Nurture bring favorable outcome.
6. Nature has nothing to do with time spent. Nurture has everything to do with time spent.
6. Lastly, Nature deals with natural growth. Nurture deals with environmental thing.


  1. How many parts of brain?

Parts of brain

  1. Fore brain b. Mid brain                            c. Hind brain
  2. Thalamus 1. Medulla
  3. Hypothalamus 2. Pons
  4. Limbic system 3. Cerebellum
  5.               Cerebral cortex


Question-July, 2011

  1. Explain the biological motives hunger, thirst and sleep drive.


Hunger drive

When the food supply of the body has been exhausted, certain biochemical changes take place in the tissues of the body. This causes the stomach to contract which gives hunger pain. The hunger must be satisfied in order to help the body to return to a physiological balance or homeostasis.

Thirst drive

The tissues of the body lose fluid when fluids have not taken in. As a result, the mucous membrane of the throat becomes dry and sensation of thirst.

Sleep drive

Occurs at regular intervals for each person. When the body continues activities without rest or sleep for a long time, it is possible to experience confusion, inability to pay attention, droopy eyelids, starting, muscle tremors and increased sensitivity to pain. The body temperature and metabolism drop enough during sleep, saving up energy.

  1. Mention the stages of Selys of general adaptation syndrome.
  2. Enumerate the differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning of learning.


Sl. No. Classical conditioning Operant conditioning
1. Response is emitted or not, the UCS will be presented. Response is elicited.
2. Time interval between CS and the UCS is rigidly fixed. The interval depends on the organisms own behavior.
3. The unconditioned stimulus occurs without regard to the subject’s behavior. The reward is contingent upon the occurrence of response.
4 There is pairing of UCS and CS. No pairing of UCS and CS.
5. Reinforcement comes first as food is presented first to elicit the response. Reinforcement is provided after the response is made by the organism.
6. Stimulus oriented. Response oriented.
7. Essence of learning is stimulus substitution. The essence of learning is response modification.
8. Involuntary response. Voluntary response.
9. Involves autonomic nervous system. Involves central nervous system.
10. Organism is passive. Organism is active.


  1. Write the definition and types of intelligent. Discuss the Piaget’s view of cognitive development.



“Intelligence is the capacity to understand the world, think rationally and use resources effectively when we faced with challenges”- Wechster.

Intelligence may be defined as “the power of good responses from the point of view of truth or fact”- Thorndike.

Intelligence can be defined as a sort of mental energy in the form of mental or cognitive abilities available with an individual which enables him to handle his environment in terms of adaptation to face novel situations as effectively as possible– Mangal 1993.

Types of intelligence


Intelligence can be divided into three kinds. This are-

  1. Mechanical/concrete intelligence: It is the skill to manipulate tools and gadgets. This type of intelligence is applicable when the individual is handing concrete objects or machines. The person uses this intelligence in operation of instruments. Example- Engineers, mechanics etc.
  2. Social intelligence: It means understanding of people and the ability to act wisely in human relationships. Persons having this type of intelligence know the art of winning friends and influence them. Examples- Leaders, ministers, salesman, diplomats are socially intelligent.
  3. Abstract or general intelligence: It is the ability to respond words, numbers and letters etc. This type of intelligence acquired by study of books and related literature. Mostly good teacher, lawyers, doctors, philosophers have this type of intelligence.


  1. What is theory?


Theory is a statement that best explained all the available evidence on a given topic.

Theory may be defined as a set of interrelated concept that provides testable relationship and direction or prediction. Theories can highly tentative structure and are constantly open to modification all replacement. Theories are somewhat strengthen by observation that seem to confirm their validity.

  1. What are the functions of brain?


    Functions of brain

  1. Receive all sensory impulses.
  2. Control the autonomic nervous system.
  3. Produce motor impulses.
  4. Control over the activities of pituitary gland.
  5. Hypothalamus control body process like eating, drinking, sleeping, temperature, sex etc.
  6. The limbic system control memory, smell, pleasure and pain, rage and aggression, affection, sexual desire etc.
  7. Cerebral responsible for storing sensory information, controlling body movements, processing all information.
  8. Mid brain regulates hearing sense
  9. Hind brain regulates breathing, reflexes, digestion, respiration, circulation, dancing, typing, playing, transfer impulses from cerebellum to higher center etc.


Function of spinal cord

  1. Works as a channel of communication from and to the brain.
  2. Act as an organ for effective reflex actions like withdrawal of the hand when something is hot.
  3. Control automatic reflex.


  1. Mention the term personality traits.


Personality traits

The most common way to describe people, says a nurse is to list a number of qualities she should possess e.g. patience, honesty, perseverance, thoroughness and initiative. These qualities are called personality traits.

  1. Define attitude and developmental process of attitude.


Meaning of attitude

As the individual develops his cognition, feelings and action tendencies with respect to the various objects in his world become organized into enduring system called attitude.

Allport (1935) has defined attitude as a mental and neural state of readiness organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual’s response.


An attitude can be defined, as an enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of the individual’s world.

(Krech and Crutchfield-1948)

Process of attitude development

  1. Heredity may play only a very small part in the development of attitude.
  2. Family is the first place for formation of attitude. Parents are exceedingly important for formation of attitude.
  • Attitudes are formed in the context of the individual’s wants, information, group affiliation and responsibility development.
  1. The individual in trying to satisfy his wants develops attitude.
  2. Attitude shape the information to which the individual is exposed.
  3. Group affiliations help in the formation of individual attitudes.
  • Attitude are also influenced by mass media e.g. newspaper, journal, books etc.
  • Many of our attitudes are developed by us as a result of pressure from others.
  1. Attitude developments also depends on motivation, personality etc.








Question-January, 2013

1           What is the relationship between body upon mind? How action of mind upon body and action of body upon mind leads to psychological disorder?


Relation between body upon mind

Psychology studies human behavior which involves both body and the mind. They are interrelated& interrupt upon each other. Mental functions and physical states affect each other. Body and mind are two aspects of living, dynamic and adjusting personality. Mind is regarded as the function of the body; it doesn’t exist apart from the body. It is sum total of various mental processes such as observing, knowing, thinking, reasoning, feeling, imagining remembering, judging, and others. Mind also grows just as the body grows.

Action of mind upon body

  1. All physical and motor activities begin by the motivation in the mind.
  2. Negative emotions like fear, anger and jealousy produce illness. They make us depressed.
  3. Emotional conflicts lie at the root of peptic ulcer, coronary heart diseases, blood pressure and
  4. Deep thinking and concentration can cause physical fatigue.
  5. Soldiers put in super human effort and win the war when their morally is high.


Action of body upon mind

  1. Rise in blood pressure leads to mental excitement.
  2. Fatigue retards intellectual activity.
  3. Sudden emotion causes mental imbalance.
  4. Constipation makes people irritable.
  5. Dyspepsia makes people gloomy.
  6. Hyperthyroidism leads to excitement and hypothyroidism causes lethargy.
  7. Bad throat and septic tonsils can reduce concentration.


  1. What is conflict? States the types of conflict. Explain, how the nurse coping with stress?



Conflict is a special type of frustration. It is a painful state or condition of an individual. Conflict occurs when one has to choose between equally desirable or undesirable goals.

Conflict means a painful emotional state which results from a tension between opposed and contradictory wishes.(Douglas and Holland)

Types of conflict

There are four (4) types of conflict. These are –

  1. Approach- Approach conflict
  2. Avoidance – Avoidance conflict
  3. Approach – Avoidance conflict
  4. Multiple Approach – Avoidance conflict

Approach –Approach Conflict

This is the simplest kind of conflict and occurs between two positive goals that are equally attractive. For example, there are two courses that you want to take, but they are scheduled for the same time.

         +                                                                     +

Fig, Approach – approach conflict

Approach – approach conflicts are easy to resolve. But they become serious if the choice of one alternative means the loss of an extremely attractive alternative.

Avoidance – Avoidance conflict

This arises when a person faces two undesirable situations and avoidance of one forces exposure to the others.




 –                                                                               –

Fig, Avoidance – avoidance conflict ( from fire to frying plan)

These types of conflicts are very difficult to resolve and create intense emotions. For example, a woman trying to choose between continuing an unwanted pregnancy and getting an abortion done.

Approach – Avoidance Conflict

This type of conflict exists when one event or activity has both attractive and unattractive features.


Fig, Approach – avoidance conflict                          

For example, Ice cream is delicious but is also causes obesity. A man wants to marry a girl for her beauty but at the same time her educational level is too low.

Multiple Approach – Avoidance Conflict

This conflict exists when a choice must be made between two or more alternatives, each of which has both positive and negative features.


                         +                                                                              +             

      –                                                                               –

Fig. Double approach – avoidance conflict

For example, a person may have the alternative of accepting any of the two jobs, of which one may be boring but with a very good pay and other may be interesting but with a very poor pay.

Such conflicts are the most difficult to resolve, and to make the right decision, the individual must analyze the expected values of each course of action.

Coping with Frustration and Conflict

Frustration and conflict lead to stress and anxiety causing harm to the body. Some common reactions to frustration are persistence, escape and aggression. Some methods of relieving frustration are:

  • Identify the source of frustration, try to change or control it. If cannot, learn to accept it.
  • Decide important things carefully; check everything carefully before taking a decision.
  • Review the situation again.
  • Change goals or modify desires.
  • Substitute our goals by others which are equally satisfying but are different obtainable.
  • Seek advise from experts, friend or relatives.
  • Encourage full expression of positive and negative feelings within an accepting atmosphere.
  • Avoid indecision. Stick with decisions and forget about the other choices.


  1. Define neuron. Classify nervous system.



The structural and functional unit of nervous system consists of nucleus, cell body and cell membrane.

Classification of nervous system

Nervous system consist of –

  1. Central Nervous system (CNS) B. Peripheral Nervous System(PNS)
  2. Brain       1. Somatic/voluntary nervous system
  3. Fore brain                                           2. Autonomic/involuntary nervous system
  4. Mid brain                                                            a. Sympathetic nervous system(arousing)
  5. Hind brain                                             b. Parasympathetic nervous system (calming)
  6. Spinal cord
  7. Write down the difference between endocrine and exocrine gland.


Difference between endocrine & exocrine gland is given below:

Trait Endocrine Exocrine
Definition Glands are ductless secrets their product into the blood or lymphatic’s is called endocrine gland. Gland secrets their product through ducts on the surface is called Exocrine gland.
Duct Absent Present
Secretions known as Hormone Juice, Protein ,Glycoprotein, lipid
Transport Blood stream Duct
Mode of secretion Merocrine only Merocrine, Apocrine, Holocrine
Example Pituitary gland, thyroid gland , pineal etc. Salivary gland, sweat gland etc.



  1. Explain the laws (theory) of learning mentioned by psychologist E. Thorndike.


Thorndike formulated certain laws of learning. According to Thorndike all learning is trial and error.

  1. Law of effect: Any response followed by a reward will be strengthened. Any response which is unsuccessful will be weakened.
  2. Law of exercise: The law of exercise states that there is a direct relationship between repetition and the strength of the stimulus- response bond. The law of exercise is based on the law of use and law of disuse. The learned activity (reading, writing, typing, singing, drawing, dancing etc) is learned by constant practice over a long period.
  3. Law of readiness: Learning takes best when a person is ready to learn. If a person is ready to act, acting gives him satisfaction. A person cannot learn if he is not ready to learn. Readiness includes motivation, inclination, attitude or mindset.


  1. Mention the stages of Selys of general adaptation syndrome. ( July,2011)


The general adaptation syndrome occurs in three stages. This are-

  1. The alarm reaction
  2. The stage of resistance
  3. The stage of exhaustion


Now explanation,

  1. The alarm reaction: The alarm reaction is essentially the emergency response of the body.
  2. The stage of resistance: A major feature of the stage of resistance is that certain hormonal responses-especially in the adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) axis. It is an important line defense in resisting the effects of stresses. Prolong activity of ACTH can impair the body’s ability to fight infection and can have other harmful effects.
  3. The stage of exhaustion: In the stage of exhaustion, the body’s ability to respond to stresses has been seriously affected. At this stage or late in the stage of resistance, various psychosomatic (mind-body) disorders may occur.

Question-August, 2013

  1. Who was the father of medicine as the cause of mental diseases?
  2. What do you mean by sexual orientation?


It means how one views one’s self in terms of being emotionally, romantically, sexually or affectionately attracted to an individual of a particular gender.

  1. Write down the characteristics of learning.


Characteristics of learning

The general characteristics of learning are as follows-

  1. Learning by unitary: A learner response to the total learning situation in his visual field. The learner also responds as a whole person-intellectually, emotionally, physically and spiritually-to acquire an insightful learning.
  2. Learning is purposeful: Learning is always purposeful and goal oriented.
  3. Learning is individual: Each learner is unique as he/she differs from others in his/her mental, physical and emotional make up and needs.
  4. Learning is self active: A person cannot learn unless he or she reacts to the learning situation, since, learning is a personal process; each individual learner must make individual effort to seek for the learning opportunity in his/her learning situation.
  5. Learning is creative: In the process of learning, the learner receives the information not only as presented to him/ her, but through his/her creative thinking looks for new relationships or association to describe and interpret the nature of things, events and situations.
  6. Learning is transferable: Learning involves developing insight or understanding by relating new ideas or mental states to a store of old ones.


Question-January, 2014

  1. Define gland and hormone.



Gland is a large, complex, aggregates of glandular epithelium cells specialized for secretion or excretion.


These are chemical messenger produced by a variety of specialized secretary cells & transported by circulatory system to act an adjacent and distal tissue is considered as hormone.


  1. States the functions of growth hormone.


Function of growth hormone:

Effects on growth Effects on metabolism
1. Stimulation of chondrogenesis

2. Mitosis or chondrocyte & osteocyte

3. Conversion of chondrocyte into osteogenic cells

4. maintenance of balance between osteoblastic & osteoclastic

1. Carbohydrate metabolism

­ Plasma glucose

2. Lipid metabolism

­ b- Oxidation

­ FFA synthesis

­ Ketone body formation

Protein metabolism Mineral metabolism
1. Positive nitrogen balance 1. ­ Plasma, ­ Ca++, ­ PO4, & ­ Mg++ level
Other function
1. Sodium retention

2. Prolactin like activity

3. Indirectory affects insulin secretion


  1. What is clinical psychology?


Clinical psychology: it is the largest subfield of psychology (55%). This branch of applied psychology describes the causes of mental illness, abnormal behavior of a patient and suggests treatment & effective adjustment of the affected person in society. It is the study of techniques which are employed in the diagnosis and treatment of mentally abnormal personalities. A clinical psychologist has an MA or PhD in psychology and is trained to apply psycho therapeutic techniques, to diagnose psychological disorders and to conduct tests and do research.

  1. Explain the four distinct phases of female sexual response according to Masters and Johnson.


Master and Johnson met in 1957 when William Masters hired Virginia Johnson as a research assistant to undertake a comprehensive study of human sexuality. He described four stage model of sexual response which are given below-

  1. Excitement phase (initial arousal) – Sexual arousal develops in response to sexual stimulation.
  2. Plateau phase (at full arousal, but not yet at orgasm) – Maintenance of the excitement for a definite period of time.
  3. Orgasmic phase– Involuntary release of sexual tension.
  4. Resolution phase (after orgasm) – Bodily changes that have accompanied sexual arousal return to normal.


  1. Define neurosis.



A psychological or behavioral disorder in which anxiety is the primary characteristic; defense mechanisms or any phobias are the adductive techniques that a person learns to cope with this underlying anxiety. In contrast to the psychoses, people with a neurosis do not exhibit gross distortion of reality or gross disorganization of personality but in severe cases, those affected may be as disabled as those with a psychosis.


A functional nervous disease, or one in which there is no evident lesion.


A peculiar state of tension or irritability of the nervous system; any form of nervousness.”


It is a mild to moderate mental illness caused by various stressors which cause psychoneurotic changes in an individual.


  1. What is frustration?



 Frustration means emotional tension resulting from the blocking of a desire or need.

( Good, Crater V.)


Frustration is the feeling of being blocked or thwarted in satisfying a need or attaining a goal, individual perceives as significant.


  1. Types of personality.


According to Seldom Kretchmer         Allport Dr. Karl G.Jung
Type 1. Endomorphic

2. Mesomorphic

3. Ectomorphic

1. Pyknic

2. Athletic

3. Leptosomatic/ Asthenic

1. Type A personality

2. Type B personality

1. Introvert personality

2. Extrovert personality



Based on body build (Physiological types) – According to Kretchmer & William Seldon

According to Kretschmer: Kretschmer (1925) divided people into three types based on body structure-

Personality trait Description Personality characteristics
1. Pyknic Extrovert, round and fat Sociable, jolly, Easy going and good natured
2. Athletic active, aggressive, well developed muscular body Energetic, optimistic and adjustable
3. Asthenic Introvert, tall, thin, sensative Unsociable, reserved, shy, sensitive and pessimistic.


According to William Seldon : William Seldon (1954) divided people into three types based on body build and behavior-

Name Description Characteristic
1. Endomorphic Person having developed viscera but weak somatic structure-fat, soft, round. Easy going, affectionate, and fond of eating.
2. Mesomorphic Balance development of viscera and somatic structure-muscular, strong Physically active and noisy. Craving for muscular activity, self, assertive, love risks and adventure, energetic, assertive and bold tempered.
3. Ectomorphic Weak somatic structure as well as undeveloped viscera-thin, tall, fragile and flat chested. Pessimistic, unsociable, reserved, brainy, artistic &introvert


Introvert & extrovert type of personality according to Dr Karl G. Jung/psychological types of personality

On the basis of sociability Dr. Karl G.Jung classified people into two main groups

  1. Introvert
  2. Extrovert
  Introvert Extrovert
Definition A shy person who usually withdraws and prefers to be alone and who are interested in themselves, their own feelings, emotions and reactions. A personality that focuses on social life and the external world instead of its internal experience. They are sociable and like to move with people.
Characteristics 1. Shyness.

2. Social withdrawal.

3. Thought oriented.

4. Seek depth of knowledge and influence.

5. Prefer more substantial interaction.

6. Recharge and get their energy from spending time alone.

7. Attitude is motivated from the outside and is directed by external objective factors and relationship.

8. Behavior directed externally to influence outside factors and events.

  1. Tendency to be outgoing
  2. Talkative
  3. Action oriented
  4. Seek extent of knowledge and influence
  5. Often prefer more frequent interaction
  6. Recharge and get their energy from spending time with people
  7. Attitude is motivated from within and directed by inner subjective matters
  8. Behavior directed inwardly to understand and manage self and experience.



Personality types based on temperament

Hippocrates ( about 400 BC), the father of medicine, classified people into four types as per temperament depending on which one of one’s bodily hormone or fluids they believe to predominate.

  1. Sanguine– cheerful, vigorous, confident, optimistic (Blood).
  2. Phlegmatic-calm, slow moving, unexcitable, unemotional (mucus).
  3. Choleric-irritable, hot tempered (yellow bile).
  4. Melancholic-depressed, morose (black bile).


Question-August, 2014

  1. State the functions of some endocrine gland.


Functions of endocrine glands


Name of gland Functions Dysfunctions
Posterior pituitary 1. Regulate water & salt balance 1. In case of lack forms Diabetes
Anterior pituitary 1. Regulates growth through secretion of growth hormone.

2. Control of adrenal cortex, pancreas, thyroid & gonads.

1. In case of lack forms dwarfism.

2. In case of too much gigantism.

Pancreas 1. Regulates sugar level of the body by secreting insulin. 1. In lack forms hypoglycemia.

2. In too much hyperglycemia.

Thyroid 1. Regulates metabolism 1. In lack leads to stunted growth and mental retardation

2. In too much refers to high metabolism, w/t loss & nervousness.

Adrenal 1. Regulates sugar & salt balance

2. Help the body resist stress & deals with stress.

3. Responsible for growth of pubic hair.

1. In lack unable to cope with stress.
Gonad 1. In female, regulate sexual development, ovulation & growth of sex organ.

2. In males, regulate sexual development, production of sperm & growth of sex organ

1. Lack of sex hormones during puberty results in lack of secondary characteristics (facial & bodily hair) muscle loss in males, breasts in female.