Nursing Administration and Management (QUESTION SOLUTION-2016)
Short questions (SQ) answer any two of the following (2×5) =10
(a).What do you mean by management? (02)
- Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performance to determine and accomplish stated objectives by the use of human being and other resources.
- Management is an art of knowing what to do, when to do and see that it is done in the best and cheapest way.
(b). What are the roles of nurse manager? (03)
The roles of nurse manager are –
- Preparing objectives.
- Public relation.
- Problem solving.
- Recognizing and rewarding.
- Record and report keeping.
- Directing and leading.
(a). Define planning and organizing? (2)
Planning (also called forethought) is the process of thinking about and organizing the activities required to achieve a desired goal.
The act or process of making or carrying out plans; specifically: the establishment of goals, policies, and procedures for a social or economic unit.
Organizing is a systematic process of structuring, integrating, coordinating task goals, and activities to resources in order to attain objectives.
(b). Write down the differences between administration and management? 03
Difference between Administration and Management:
||1. Administration is the organization, co-ordination and control of many people to achieve some purposive and desirable goal.
| 1. Management is an art of knowing what to do, when to do and see that it is done in the best and cheapest way.
||2. It is a decision making function.
||2. It is an executing function.
||3. It decides what is to be done and when it to be done.
||3. It decides who should do, how he should do it.
||4.Planning and policies are included
||5. Conceptual and human skills
||5. Technical and human skill’s.
||6. Top level function.
|6. Middle and lower level function.
||7. It is applicable to non business concern.
||7.It is applicable to business concern
||8. It is influence by public opinion, govt, policies, religions, organization and customs.
||8. It is influence by the value, belief and decision of the manager.
(a). What is leadership? (02)
- Leadership is the process of influence in which the leader influences others toward goal achievement.
- Leadership is the ability to persuade other to seek defined objectives enthusiastically.
- Leadership is the dynamic forces that stimulates, motivates and coordinate an organization.
(b). Describe in brief the principles of delegation? (03)
Principles of delegation:
- Clarity of delegation.
- Delegation to be consistent with result expected.
- Responsibility cannot be delegated.
- Parity of authority and responsibility.
- The exception principal.
- Other principal of delegation are-
- Interference should be Minimum.
- Tolerance of mistake.
- Adequate should be established.
- Goals should be predetermined.
- Policies, rules and procedure should b establish to guide decision.
- Upward delegation should be allowed.
Essay Question (EQ) Answer any one question of the following (1×10) =10
Q.No.1 who is leader? Describe the style and qualities of leadership? (10)
- Leader is a person who stimulates, motivates, coordinates and influences others to achieve specific goals.
- Leader is a person who deals directly with the use of personnel, material, and money to attain certain goals.
Leadership style: there are three types of leadership. They are –
- Democratic leadership.
- Autocratic leadership.
- Laissez faire leadership.
Democratic leadership in which the leader draws ideas and suggestion from his group by discussion and construction.
Characteristics of democratic leadership:
- Democratic leader encourages enthusiasms, high morale and satisfaction in employees, since human needs for recognition are being met.
- A democratic leader gives orders only after consulting the group.
- The democratic leader uses rewards to create a positive motivation.
- Democratic leader motivate the people to contribute his talents to the achievement of organizational goals.
- In democratic leadership participant in the group as a member.
Autocratic leadership: Autocratic leadership in which the leader assumes full responsibility for all actions.
Characteristics of Autocratic leadership:
- In this type of leadership, leader gives direct, clear and exact orders to his employees with detailed instruction as to what is to be done and how to do.
- Leader determines policies without discussion of the group members or employees.
- No information gives about the future plans.
- In this leadership the level of morale attained is unenthusiastic compliance with rules and directions.
- Gives personal praise to each member for his own initiatives / work.
Laissez faire leadership:
Laissez faire leadership is leadership in which each individual sets goals independently. It exists when a manager is too weak or too threatened to exercise the functions of leadership or when lack of trust within the group prevents unit.
Laissez faire leadership in which the leader plays down his role in the group’s activity and exercises a minimum of control.
Characteristics of laissez faire leadership:
- Leader does not lead the group.
- He tends to be preoccupied with his own work.
- No proper direction.
- This leader does not participate in the group.
- Leader defer from decision making activities.
- Leader does not criticize.
Qualities of leadership:
- Decision maker.
- Risk taker.
- Charging agent.
- Critical thinker.
- Creative and problem solver.
- Role model.
Define resource management? Discuss the component of resource management. (10)
Answer: Resources are the equipment’s that are necessary to conduct an organization.
Resource management is a code of the ways to manage function by proper utilize of resources that helps or able to get greater possible result in an organization.
Component of resource management:Component of resource management are given in the below- they are-
- Human resources.
- Fiscal resources.
- Material resources.
- Information resources.
- Time resources..
- Position and power authority
Human resources management:
Human resource management is that part of the management function, which is primarily concerned with the human relationships within an organization.The areas of Human resource management are-
- Training and developing.
- Wage and salary administration.
- Working condition and employee welfare.
- Labor relation.
- Employee record.
Fiscal resources are the amount of money that managers use purchase good and support the administrative and management activities an all kinds of service delivery of any organization effectively and efficiently.Fiscal resources includes-
- Personal household.
- Health insurance.
- Governmental revenue.
- Foreign aids.
Material resources: Material resources are –
- Medical equipment.
- Health facilities.
- Health commodities.
Information resources: It is the most important and essential resource for management functions toward a batter future. Source of information are –
- Planning staked.
- Organization chart
- Book literature.
Short questions (SQ) answer any two of the following (2×5) =10
(a). What are the steps of delegation? (02)
The American Nurses Association defines “delegation as the transfer of responsibility for the performance of a task from one individual to another while retaining accountability for the outcome”.
(b). Mention the barrier of effective delegation. (03)
Barrier related to delegator:
- Lack of trust on employee.
- Lack of ability to direct.
- Inadequate organizational skill.
- Fear of completion.
- Fear of criticism.
- Fear of liability.
- Fear of blame of other mistake.
- Fear of loss of control.
- Fear of taking risk.
Barrier related to delegate:
- Fear of criticism.
- Lack of self- confidence.
- Lack of necessary information.
- Inadequate incentives.
- Easier to ask the boss.
Barrier related to environment:
- Management style.
- Organizational structure.
- Job description.
- Available resources.
(a). What do you mean by time management? 02
Time management has been defined as “a set of related common-sense skills that helps you use your time in the most effective and productive way possible” (Mind Tools, 2006a). In other words, time management allows us to achieve more with our time.
(b). Why time management planning is important in work place?
Answer: Time management planning is most importance in work place because-
- It increases personal productivity and value.
- It is beneficial to accomplish unite goal timely and appropriate manner.
- It helps to direct employee effectively.
- It able to effective management of resources.
- It helps to prevent periodical crisis.
- It able to achieve organizational goals in time.
- To perform the task within the given time.
- It helps to achieve expected goal.
- To face duplication of work.
- To increase the efficiency of a manager.
(a). What is quality improvement? (02)
- Quality improvement is a systematic, formal approach to the analysis of practice performance and effort to improve performance.
- Quality improvement is a method of evaluating and improving process of patient’s care which emphasizes a multidisciplinary approach to problem solving.
- Quality improvement is the commitment and approach used to continuously improve every process in every part of an organization.
(b). Describe the roles of a nurse manager in quality nursing management. (03)
- Monitoring critical indicators of care.
- Patients care profile analysis.
- Setting professional standard.
- Patients satisfaction survey.
- Assess staff nurses competency.
- Set a plan for developing staff nurses competency relevant to their job description.
- Establish a committee for nursing standard.
- Introduce nursing standard into daily nursing practice.
- Monitor and evaluate staff nurses compliance to the nursing standard.
Essay Question (EQ) Answer any One question of the following (1×10) =10
Q.No.1 what do you mean by organizational conflict? Explain the seven strategies of conflict management. (10)
- Organizational conflict is a state of disorder causes by actual or perceived opposition of need, value and interests between people working together.
- Organization conflict is the types of disagreement between employees or departments in an organization and how these affect its activities.
- Organizational conflict the interpersonal level includes disputes between peers as well as supervisor-subordinate conflict.
Strategies of conflict management:The seven strategies of conflict management are –
It is the most important method of conflict management. This method attempt to resolve a conflict by identifying a solution. In this method, no one should win or loss but both should gain something.
Avoiding means “ignoring”. In this process the parties playing attention to the conflict but they not taking any action to resolve it.
Accommodating or cooperating:
It is accomplish by complimenting ones opponent down playing differences and focusing on minor areas of agreement, as if little disagreement exist.
it is an assertive and co-operative means of conflict resolution that results in win –win solution. Although it takes a lot of time is considered the best solution for the conflict and encompasses all important goals to each side.
Forcing the competing approach is used when one party pressures what it wants at the expense of the others. Because only one party wins. It produces a loser, and leaves anger and resentment on losing side.
Immediate and obvious movement to stop conflict at the very start. It is very powerful, and does not allow conflict to take roof nevertheless, it may leave impression that conflict is not tolerated and may make something big out of nothing.
Negotiating-High level discussion that seeks agreement but not necessarily consensus
Q.No.2. Define supervision. Explain the principles of supervision and components of nursing supervision. 10
- Supervision refers to guiding, commanding and regulating the efforts of subordinates towards the goals.
- Supervision is a systematic and disciplined helping process to support the programme activities in order to achieve the desired goal.
Principles of supervision:
- Supervision should not be overburdened to any individual or group.
- Supervision causing unreasonable pressure for achievements results in low performance and low confidence in the supervisor.
- Supervision diagnosis does not overestimate his understanding and money.
- Human behavior with due to consideration to human weaknesses. this should be keep in mind of supervisor.
- Supervisor should create atmosphere of cordiality and mutual trust.
- Supervision should be planned and adopted to the changing condition.
- Supervision must possess sound professional knowledge.
- Supervision to be exercised without giving the subordinate a sense that they are being supervised.
- Supervision helps to make a good learning situation. It should be a teaching and learning process,
- Supervision should foster the ability of each staff member to think and act for himself.
- Supervision should encourage workers participate in decision making.
- Supervision needs good communication.
- Supervision should have strength to influence capacity of other.
- Supervision is a process of cooperation and coordination.
- Supervision should create suitable climate for productive work.
- Supervision should create suitable climate for reproductive work.
- Supervision should respect the personality of the staff.
- Supervision should stimulate the worker to grow in effectiveness.
- Supervision is responsible for checking and guidance.
- Supervision is should focus on staff growth and department. .
Component of nursing supervision:
Three component of nursing supervision- they are
- Supervised practice and learning.
- Organizational supervision.
- Supportive supervision.
B.Sc in Nursing.