Concept of Community Health Nursing

Subject: Community health Nursing 

For Basic B.Sc and Diploma Student’s

Definition of community

Community can be defined as a collection of group of people in social interaction in a definite geographical area and sharing a common social and cultural life.

Or

A community is a social group determined by geographical boundaries and sharing common values and interest.

Or

Community may be defined as a collection of people who interact with one another and who’s common interests for a sense of unity, sharing common interest, living under the same laws & regulations.

Characteristics of community 

  1. A geographical area
  2. Population
  3. Economic status
  4. Specific functions or occupations as a whole for the community.
  5. Group dependence or belongingness and an independent behavior.
  • Definition of health:

According to world health organization (WHO) Health is “a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity so that each citizen can lead a socially and economically productive life”.

Community health

It is the health in which meeting collective needs by identifying problems and managing interactions within the community and larger society.

Or

Community health is defined as “all the personal health and environmental services in any human community, irrespective of whether such services were public or private one”.

 Definition of public health

Public health is science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health and efficiency through organized community efforts such as control of infection, sanitation, health education etc.

Objectives of public health

  1. Control of physical environment.
  2. Control of communicable disease.
  3. Prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of chronic diseases and behavioral disorder.
  4. To make maximum utilization of available resources to ensure health for all.
  5. To improve the efficacy of health care delivery system.

Community health nursing

Community health nursing is nursing practice in the community with the primary focus on the health care of individuals, families and groups in a community. The goal is to preserve, protect and promote or maintain health.

Or

Community health as a field of nursing which combines nursing practice with public health science to formulate a community oriented & population- focused practice that “synthesizes the knowledge from the public health sciences and professional nursing theories” to improve the health of communities and vulnerable populations.

Community oriented nursing

Community oriented nursing is nursing that has its primary focus the health care of either the community or individuals, families or group.

Community based nursing

Community based nursing is the provision of acute care and care of chronic health problems to individuals and families in the community.

Characteristics of community oriented nursing

  1. It is a field of nursing.
  2. It combines public health with nursing.
  3. It is population focused.
  4. It emphasizes prevention, health promotion and wellness.
  5. It promotes clients responsibilities and self care.
  6. It uses aggregate measurement and analysis.
  7. It uses principles of organizational theory, and
  8. It involves inter-professional collaboration.

Characteristics of community oriented nurses

  1. Knowledge of public health
  2. Vision
  3. Physical fitness
  4. Mental fitness
  5. Moral characteristics
  6. Communication skill
  7. Leadership qualities
  8. Critical thinking
  9. Organizing power
  10. Responsibilities
  11. Respect
  12. Justice
  13. Conscious about timing
  14. Decisiveness
  15. Controlling power
  16. Innovation
  17. Cordial
  18. Knowledge of law.

Differences between public health and community health

Public health Community health
Public health is science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health and efficiency through organized community efforts such as control of infection, sanitation, health education etc. Community health is defined as “all the personal health and environmental services in any human community, irrespective of whether such services were public or private one”.

 

It is a part of community health. It covers all the aspects of public health, preventive medicine and social medicine.
In practice public health components are community water supply, proper sewage disposal, good housing etc. Its components are curative, preventive, promotive and rehabilitative services.
To control physical environment and communicable diseases. To promote physical and social wellbeing of the people.
Community participation not needed. Community participation is essential.

 Responsibility of public or community health nurse

  1. Demonstrating and supervising nursing care in the home.
  2. Control of communicable diseases.
  3. Medical care.
  4. Teaching about prevention and control of diseases.
  5. Home visit.
  6. School visit.
  7. Group teaching.
  8. Epidemiological data collection.
  9. Follow up to contact.
  10. Administrative activities.
  11. Conducting health conference.
  12. Planning staff education.
  13. Utilization of facilities.
  14. Evaluation.

 Functions of public or community health nurse

  1. Direct care to individual, family and groups.
  2. Health education.
  3. Counseling or problem solving.
  4. Referral system.
  5. Co-ordination.
  6. Collaboration.
  7. Case finding (Epidemiological investigation).
  8. Supervision and administrative activity.
  9. Communication assessment programmed, planning and evaluation.
  10. Extended practice.
  11. Client advocate.
  12. Discharge planning.
  13. Role as modeling.

Required materials or articles for community health nurse

  • Weight machine
  • Height measuring machine
  • Measuring tape
  • BP instrument and stethoscope
  • Clinical thermometer
  • Senile chart (vision)
  • Oroscope
  • Small drum
  • Spirit and spirit lamp
  • Benedict solution and acetic acid
  • Tongue depressor
  • Sterile gauze and cotton
  • Syringe and needle
  • Kidney dish and Galipot
  • Neil brush
  • Artery forceps, needle holder, scissors
  • Tooth dissecting forceps
  • Test tube
  • IV canula
  • Bandage roll/ adhesive plaster
  • Plastic Gown and mask
  • Gloves
  • Soap with soap case
  • Antiseptic lotion
  • ORS
  • Contraceptive devices e.g. condom, oral pill etc
  • Health education materials
  • Note book/ registered book
  • Referral system book
  • Paper, pencil, pen.

Common community health problem in Bangladesh

There are many health problems faced by the people:

  1. Communicable disease problem
Bacterial diseases Viral diseases Protozoal diseases Helminthes diseases
·         Diarrhoeal diseases

·         Tuberculosis

·         Tetanus

·         Diphtheria

·         Enteric fever

·         Anthrax

·         Leprosy

·         Plague

·         Viral hepatitis

·         Influenza

·         Measles

·         Mumps

·         Chicken pox

·         Rabies

·         Dengue fever

·         AIDs

·         Amoebiasis

·         Trichomoniasis

·         Ascariasis ( round worm)

·         Enterobiasis ( pin worm)

·         Taeniasis ( tape worm)

Non communicable disease problem

  • Heart disease
  • Hypertension
  • Stroke
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Mental problem
  • Accident

Nutritional problem

  • Protein energy malnutrition (PEM)
  • Nutritional anemia
  • Low birth weight baby
  • Vitamin A deficiency disorder
  • Iodine deficiency disorder

Medical care problem

  • Inadequate financial resources
  • Uneven distribution of health personnel- more in urban areas.

Environmental sanitation problem

  • Lack of safe drinking water
  • Lack of sanitary disposal of refuse, sewage and excreta
  • Noise and air pollution

Population related problem

  • Shortage of food
  • Poor economy
  • Housing problem
  • Employment problem
  • Early marriage
  • Lack of adequate health services
  • Increase dependency ratio
  • Increase MMR and IMR.

Social Problems

  • Alcoholism
  • Drug dependence
  • STDs
  • Prostitution
  • Dowry system

 

Edit by,

lecturer,

Baby Kirttania

 

 

 

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